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NC State Extension

BOLO October

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Month-by-month lists of common plant diseases, pests, and other problems you may encounter in North Carolina yards and gardens.

Back to BOLO list of months.


Fairy ring (all turfgrasses)

Large patch (bermudagrass/zoysiagrass/centipedegrass/St. Augustinegrass)

Leaf spot caused by Bipolaris/Drechslera (bluegrasses/bermudagrass)

Red thread (Kentucky bluegrass/fescue/ryegrass)

Rust (Kentucky bluegrass/fescue/St. Augustinegrass/zoysiagrass)

Yellow patch (fescue/Kentucky bluegrass/ryegrass)

Woody Ornamentals

Multiple hosts: Phytophthora root rot, Armillaria root rot (sometimes producing mushrooms this time of year), Botryosphaeria dieback, conks of wood decay fungi such as Pseudoinonotus dryadeus, a.k.a. the weeping polypore, sooty mold, improper planting

Multiple shrub species: root-knot nematodes

Arborvitae: Phytophthora root rot, Armillaria root rot

Azalea: Phytophthora root rot, Armillaria root rot, Phomopsis dieback, stunt nematode

Boxwood: Phytophthora root rot, boxwood blight, boxwood stem canker (Colletotrichum theobromicola), nematodes (lesion, root-knot, spiral)

Cherry-laurel: shot-hole, Botryosphaeria canker/dieback

English Ivy: anthracnose, bacterial leaf spot, Phytophthora root rot

Hemlock: Rosellinia needle blight

Hydrangea: Cercospora leaf spot

Indian hawthorn: Entomosporium leaf spot

Japanese black pine: pine wilt nematode

Japanese holly: black root rot, Armillaria root rot, Botryosphaeria canker/dieback

Junipers: Phytophthora root rot (except Eastern red cedar), Armillaria root rot

Leyland cypress: Phytophthora root rot, Armillaria root rot, Cypress (Seiridium) canker, Botryosphaeria canker/dieback, Passalora needle blight, algae on foliage, internal browning

Ligustrum (privet): Cercospora (Pseudocercospora) leaf spot

Loropetalum: bacterial gall (knot), Cercospora (Pseudocercospora) leaf spot

Magnolia, saucer: powdery mildew

Magnolia, Southern: algal leaf spot

Maple: anthracnose, mistletoe-associated swellings on branches and trunks

Oaks: bacterial leaf scorch, Tubakia leaf spot, secondary leaf spots, Biscogniauxia canker, weeping polypore (Pseudoinonotus dryadeus)

Redbud: Cercospora (Passalora) leaf spot

Red-tip photinia: Entomosporium leaf spot

Rose: Armillaria root rot, crown gall, black spot, Cercospora (Rosisphaerella) leaf spot, rose rosette

Spruce: Rhizosphaera needle cast

Sycamore: bacterial leaf scorch

Willow: Pseudocercospora leaf spot

Herbaceous Ornamentals (perennials, bedding plants)

Multiple hosts: root-knot nematode, late season decline from low nutrition and foliar diseases

Impatiens: downy mildew

Ironweed: powdery mildew, rust

Liriope: anthracnose on leaf tips, Fusarium crown rot, root-knot nematode

Pansy/viola: Phytophthora root and crown rot, black root rot, Pythium root rot

Peony: leaf blotch (measles)

Sedum: powdery mildew

Zinnia: powdery mildew, Alternaria leaf spot (also on petals)

Fruits & Nuts

Fig: rust

Pecan: scab

Vegetables & Herbs

Beans: Cercospora leaf spot

Basil: downy mildew

Cole crops: black rot, white leaf spot of turnip and Swiss chard 

Arthropods of the general landscape

Wheel bugs (adults)

Soldier beetle larvae (Cantharidae)

Arthropods associated with multiple plants

Bagworms (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis; bags often containing eggs)