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NC State Extension

BOLO April

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Month-by-month lists of common plant diseases, pests, and other problems you may encounter in North Carolina yards and gardens.

Back to BOLO list of months.


Dollar spot (Kentucky bluegrass/ryegrass)

Fairy ring (all turfgrasses)

Large patch (bermudagrass/zoysiagrass/centipedegrass/St. Augustinegrass)

Leaf spot caused by Bipolaris/Drechslera (bluegrasses/bermudagrass)

Red thread (Kentucky bluegrass/fescue/ryegrass)

Rust (Kentucky bluegrass/fescue/St. Augustinegrass/zoysiagrass)

Spring dead spot (bermudagrass/zoysiagrass)

Woody Ornamentals

General: Slime mold on mulch in landscape beds

Multiple hosts: Phytophthora root rot, Armillaria root rot, Botryosphaeria dieback, sooty mold, improper planting, branch pruning by squirrels, sapsucker injury, cold injury (loose bark on stems), frost injury to new growth

Multiple shrub species: root-knot nematodes

Arborvitae: Phytophthora root rot, Armillaria root rot

Azalea: Phytophthora root rot, Armillaria root rot, Exobasidium leaf gall, Phomopsis dieback, stunt nematode

Black cherry: black knot

Boxwood: Phytophthora root rot, boxwood blight, nematodes (lesion, root-knot, spiral), adult boxwood leafminers swarming (Cecidomyiidae: Monarthropalpus flavus)

Camellia: camellia petal blight, Exobasidium leaf gall, ring spot & flower break, Phytophthora root rot, freeze injury

Cherry-laurel: shot-hole, Botryosphaeria canker/dieback

Crabapple: fire blight, powdery mildew

Dogwood, flowering: spot anthracnose on bracts

English Ivy: anthracnose, bacterial leaf spot

Euonymus: powdery mildew

Gardenia: cold injury, root-knot nematode, Phytophthora root rot

Indian hawthorn: Entomosporium leaf spot

Japanese holly: black root rot, Armillaria root rot

Junipers: Phytophthora root rot (except Eastern red cedar), Armillaria root rot, cedar-apple rust and cedar-quince rust sporulating (especially on Eastern red cedar), Annosum root rot, Kabatina tip blight

Leyland cypress: Phytophthora root rot, Armillaria root rot, Cypress (Seiridium) canker, Botryosphaeria canker/dieback, Passalora needle blight, algae on foliage

Loropetalum: bacterial gall (knot)

Pear, ornamental: fire blight

Red-tip photinia: Entomosporium leaf spot

Rhododendron: Phytophthora root rot, Armillaria root rot, Exobasidium leaf gall, Botryosphaeria canker/dieback

Rose: Armillaria root rot, common canker, Botrytis canker, crown gall, black spot, powdery mildew, rose rosette, rose mosaic

Magnolia, Southern: algal leaf spot, normal shedding of oldest leaves

Spruce: Stigmina needle blight

Herbaceous Ornamentals (Perennials, Bedding Plants)

Multiple hosts: Overfertilization, Sclerotinia stem rot on perennials

Daylily: leaf streak

Hollyhock: rust

Iris: Heterosporium (Cladosporium) leaf spot, bacterial soft rot

Liriope: anthracnose on leaf tips, Fusarium crown rot

Oxalis: rust

Pachysandra: Volutella blight

Pansy/viola: Botrytis blight

Rudbeckia: Septoria leaf spot

Snapdragon: Sclerotinia stem rot (white mold)

Fruits & Nuts

Blackberry: cane blight, rust diseases, virus diseases

Cherry and plum: black knot

Fig: cold injury

Peach: leaf curl, brown rot (blossom/twig phase)

Pear: fire blight

Vegetables & Herb

Multiple hosts: Overfertilization, Pythium root rot and damping off

Cole crops: Sclerotinia white mold

Arthropods of the General Landscape

Ground-nesting solitary bees (typically Andrenidae & Colletidae)

Wheel bugs (nymphs)

Eastern subterranean termite swarmers (Reticulitermes flavipes)

May beetles (Phyllophaga spp.; typically at lights)

Hoplia scarab beetles mass emerging

Clover mites (Bryobia spp.) entering homes

White-margined burrower bug (Sehirus cinctus) nymphs (harmless, but can be found in large numbers; associated with mint seeds)

Arthropods Associated with Multiple Plants

Fall cankerworms (larvae)

Eastern tent caterpillars (larvae & tents; typically on rosaceous trees)

Bagworms (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis; bags often containing eggs)

Cottony scales (Pulvinaria spp. especially cottony camellia scaleP. floccifera)